I’ve reached the halfway point of DNF (15,000 words) and feel I need to relax the grey matter on that particular story for a while as I regroup and figure out where to take it next. Naturally, my thoughts are now turning back to Romans vs Aliens and first on the agenda is fleshing out my newly gender-switched character Saturnia since I gave her gender reassignment surgery.
Saturninus is now Saturnia. Her new profile is this:
- She is the daughter of a senator (most gladiatrix’ were high born women – a stark contrast to their male counterparts) of a well-to-do family
- Because of her position, she experienced disapproval from her parents, firstly from going into the arena and secondly for her choice of business investment (see below – women were not actually dissuaded from business interests in Ancient Rome)
- After attaining fame and fortune in the arenas, she retired and bought a gladiator school which raised more eyebrows (I will come to why people would have had a problem with this, it’s not what you might naturally think)
- That school has fallen on hard times (which was the case when she was male) and the mission will give her the cash boost she needs to resurrect the school’s fortunes through raising both profile and investment
- Nobody knows why she chose Joseph Ben Solomon as her chief trainer when they have previously met only once (this was the case when she was male) but it will be revealed during the story
Rome and the Status of Women
There are many popular beliefs about the status of women in ancient Rome that I hope to dispel during the course of the novel – particularly relating to business and investment, and to what extent women were involved in public life in the Empire. In a nutshell, this is what I have learnt about women in Rome as it is relevant to the story of Saturnia.
Wealth: Arguably, the patrician woman of the Roman Empire had a lot of it. She would have more disposable income than her husband or her father because she was not allowed to enter many of the public interests expected of her brothers and father. This would be especially true if he was running for office because in the absence of political parties, it was all self-funded. He would need a lot of money to campaign for a political position that a woman could never attain. A man was obliged to support his family – his wife and children – but a woman was not. If a man fell on hard times, legally she could allow the family to starve because she had no legal obligation to support it. This is an interesting concept in gender roles and one that was carried through to many later societies.
Business: So what was the Patrician woman to spend all her money on? What should she spend it on? A high born woman was expected to at least be interested in matters of state even if she could not enter into political office. Naturally, any good Roman wife would support her husband and family as much as she could, and one way she could do this is to generate finance to support the family. It has been noted as a strange curiosity that women were incredibly active in business life. They invested money, managed land, and kept a close eye on her business interests.
There is no greater example of the active engagement of women in Roman business than that following Claudius’ invasion of Britain. The Emperor needed a lot of money, and fast, to maintain the military successes on the island and keep the momentum going. The armies needed supplies. Shipping was a big part of that – both for commercial trade and to keep the legions supplied with equipment, food, building material etc to maintain the momentum of their rapid expansion across the British Isles. Evidence suggests that Claudius petitioned rich women specifically to establish and invest in shipping – promising lucrative returns which, of course, they capitalised on.
Politics: Though the father would always be the head of the household (and this cross class divides too), and ultimately decisions about the family should come from him, we are fooling ourselves if we believe that the concept of Roman Paterfamilias meant that women were never consulted or never offered their opinions. After all, they managed – often in a hands-on approach – their own and their family’s business interests. If a household had estates that it managed from the homestead, especially rural estates, I cannot accept that the wife of the household played no part in its management or organisation. That would go against many things we understand about rich families from the past.
The best example of a politically persuasive woman is Domitia Decidiana who married the famous general Agricola. Despite his fame, this was a case of the general “marrying up”. Their marriage was clearly one of a political alliance with the balance of power being in favour of Domitia Decidiana. With her business and political connections, seen in very good standing by the senate, Agricola saw her connections and the high esteem she held as being very useful to his later career; clearly, it was.
Gladiators and Class Snobbery
Which brings me back to Livia Saturnia. It is not unusual that the bored daughter of a Senator would have a lot of money and not know what to do with it. It is not unusual that she wouldn’t want to just be a lady of leisure at her father’s expense until she married to simply transfer the financial burden of her leisure to a husband. It is equally not unusual that a woman of means would be proactive in looking at ways of investing her substantial wealth to do something useful with her life. Her high-born status came with certain expectations. While business was not unusual, investing that money in a ludus (a Gladiator School) was unusual. Such a woman would have received a lot of disapproval for this. Indeed, I make it quite clear in the text that the people around Livia Saturnia, especially her family, disapproved of this. This had nothing to with her gender, it was an issue of class snobbery.
The games were for the low born, slaves, prisoners of war, debtors, the former high-born who had lost everything. They were for the Patrician class to watch and enjoy, but not to participate. So when a high-born woman with a lot of money and all the business investment opportunities of Vespasian’s stable and affluent Rome chooses to enter into the arena, eyebrows are raised. When she retires and uses the money and riding on her prestige to buy a gladiator school, more eyebrows are raised. Imagine if one of Queen Elizabeth II’s grandchildren chose to invest in a lap dancing club. That’s the level of a business being below Livia Saturnia’s station we are talking about here.
I realise that by including Saturnia I am bringing in an element that was rare to Roman society, but by no means unheard of. I’m not doing this for “representation” or “political corrects gorn maaaad” but I genuinely think it will open up the story in terms of character development for all six of my gladiators, and hopefully dispel some myths while moving away from the trope of the Unusually Emancipated Woman so common in period pieces.
Thanks for your time. Any thoughts on this? Are you more interested in reading the book now it includes Livia Saturnia?